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About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information. February 19, - Published on Amazon. Verified Purchase. I use this book every week and have bought it for family members as a gift. It's that good. I love eating green and this book has fantastic recipes for just that!

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  7. Plus, the zucchini squares are to die for. I never liked brussel sprouts until preparing them the way Katrine has! The recipes are not hard to manage either. Not too time consuming either - as I am a mom of young ones! Love this book!! December 3, - Published on Amazon.

    I love both of these books but am only a beginner. I've read them through, learned, prepared mentally, prepared supermarket, prepared little stashes of frozen cups of fruits and avocados, and berries and cucumbers, spinach, etc. Moreover, each bacteria is important due to its unique role in the human gut. However, some bacteria are more beneficial to human health and their growth could be encouraged through specific choices in diet.

    Through the processes carried out by the microflora, nutrients that may not have been readily available in food in the form consumed may become accessible. By metabolizing certain food components, the bacteria release nutrients in a more bioavailable form to human absorption, increasing nutrient absorption [ 31 ].

    This is extremely important when a food matrix contains high levels of a crucial micronutrient that may be in a chemical state that the body cannot absorb directly. It is for this reason, and others, that the health of the human gut and its microbial community is so crucial to overall health. With a well-maintained microbiome, the nutritional vigor of a healthy diet can be improved further. A survey of American diets estimated that consumption of prebiotic carbohydrates ranges from 1 g to 10 g per day per person [ 45 ].

    The Adequate Intake of total fiber is 38 g for men and 25 g for women. Although many prebiotic carbohydrates are categorized as fiber, no specific official recommendations have been made regarding their consumption [ 46 ]. However, the major source of dietary prebiotic carbohydrates in most Western diets is wheat, which, as mentioned above, does not provide equivalent amounts of prebiotics compared to traditional legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Therefore, traditional whole food approaches are gaining wide acceptance but little is known about the prebiotic profile of many whole foods, including pulses such as lentil and leafy green brassica vegetables such as kale.

    Today, approximately five million tons of lentil are produced around the world [ 13 ]. Lentils are an excellent source of essential macro- and micronutrients, including prebiotic carbohydrates, folates, and minerals Table 1. Nutritional composition analysis of lentils grown in the USA and Canada [ 9 , 11 , 46 ]. Lentils are typically rich in micronutrients and have the potential to provide adequate dietary amounts, especially for iron Fe , zinc Zn , and selenium Se ; a 50 g serving provides 3.

    The limited availability of these vitamins in common food sources makes their presence in lentil highly valuable.

    In addition to vitamins and minerals, lentils contain other phytonutrients including flavonoids, tannins, phytic acid, phytosterols, and many others. The health benefits of phytonutrients vary and include but are not limited to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects [ 47 ]. Unlike other grains, lentils are very low in phytic acid 2.

    Other staple food crops such as wheat 5. To investigate lentil as a source of Fe to anemic children, a clinical nutrition study in Sri Lanka was initiated. These preliminary results clearly show consumption of red lentils CDC Redberry can improve the Fe nutritional status of anemic children in Sri Lanka, and thus have potential for other populations as well. In addition to minerals, lentils are rich in prebiotic carbohydrates including resistant starch and other non-digestible starches, providing over 13 g per g serving [ 46 ].

    Resistant starch is a complex carbohydrate that is not digested in the gut and instead acts as a prebiotic, being fermented by bacteria. Mean concentrations of resistant and total starch for lentils are 7. Across 10 varieties grown in the USA, average resistant starch ranged from 6.


    In addition, all commercial lentil market classes evaluated were relatively high and uniform with respect to total prebiotic carbohydrate concentrations Figure 2 ; [ 46 ]. Therefore, lentils offer new opportunities as a whole food to promote gastrointestinal health to reduce obesity. Concentrations of total prebiotic carbohydrates in a g serving of different lentil cultivars grown the USA. Original data adopted from Johnson et al. Total prebiotics are the sum of sugar alcohols, raffinose oligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides, and resistant starch.

    Recommendation for daily total prebiotic intake reported by Douglas and Sanders is 10—20 g per day [ 51 ]. Brassica vegetables, such as kale and collard greens Brassica olceracea var. Acephala , are very important to many agricultural systems around the world. Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts are the most valuable brassica crops; however, no production statistics are currently available for leafy green brassicas in the USA. Kale, traditionally a less recognized crop, is becoming a significant specialty crop in the Southern US as a result of its suitability to southern fall and winter growing conditions.

    Kale is a traditional leafy green brassica used as a garnish on plates and salad bars but is gaining popularity as a primary ingredient in either raw or cooked form. Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina have emerged over the last five years as the leading kale producing states. Most of the kale produced in this region is sold in a variety of fresh and processed forms that are nationally distributed. Kale is also a popular leafy green vegetable in northern regions of Asia, and Europe.

    Between and , about The production rate of brassica vegetables for human consumption was million metric tons as of but is small in comparison with sugarcane, soybean, and maize, for which about one billion tons were produced [ 13 ]. Worldwide, the production of meats, sugar, and cereal grains has greatly overshadowed the production of more diverse and healthful vegetable crops, including nutritionally crucial cultivars such as brassica greens.

    These green vegetable crops can provide much needed nutrients to consumers and are often proclaimed as health foods because of their nutrient-rich composition. Brassica vegetables contain numerous micronutrients, such as antioxidants, carotenoids, glucosinolates, polyphenols, vitamins, and minerals important to human health [ 52 ]. Available data indicate that kale is rich in several vitamins A, K, C, and probably folate , essential minerals potassium, calcium, magnesium , and dietary fiber. It is likely that kale can also provide other nutrients including carotenoids, folate, and prebiotic carbohydrates, although these have not been characterized [ 53 ].

    Brassica greens are also known to contain phytochemicals such as folic acid, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, and carotenes [ 54 ]. Flavonoids act in the body as antioxidants and capture free radicals. This means that they may have a lessening effect on the likelihood of developing chronic diseases such as cancer. Other phytochemicals found in vegetables such as brassicas are categorized as anti-nutrients.

    These chemical compounds are known to disrupt many physiological pathways and lessen the absorption of beneficial nutrients. Included in this group are oxalates, phytate, and tannins. Despite its gaining popularity, kale remains an understudied vegetable. No studies of kale nutritional quality appear to have been carried out in the last few decades. However, significant genomic research on broccoli has been carried out at the University of Wisconsin, University of California, University of Georgia, and Cornell University.

    The specific focus of these research studies was on genomics and gene identification to determine mutation profiles of brassica [ 58 ]. Both lentils and kale have the potential to be extremely beneficial staple crops worldwide. They are nutrient-dense food matrices, containing a wide variety of macro- and micronutrients.

    Many studies with pulse crops, and lentils in particular, confirm their nutritional value to human diets. Fewer such data are available for kale, but recent attention focused on this leafy brassica indicate its potential to be one of the healthiest foods in terms of nutrient value. It is speculated that kale, like pulses, may also contain specific micronutrients, such as dietary fiber, which can act as prebiotics in the human gut and increase nutrient absorption overall.

    By studying the nutritional composition of lentil and kale, increasing consumption of micronutrient-rich varieties, and improving bioavailability of those micronutrients, the health of the consumer can be greatly improved. These crops have the potential to reduce calorie malnutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and chronic disease around the globe if properly researched, biofortified through biotechnology and breeding programs, and promoted.

    An additional consideration is preparation. Processing and cooking impact the nutritional profiles of these food crops and must be considered with respect to nutrient bioavailabilities. For example, resistant starch levels in lentils change significantly after processing, cooking, and cooling [ 59 ]. Thus, certain processing techniques may allow consumers to further increase their nutritional value [ 60 ] while other techniques may affect micronutrient concentration or composition in a negative way. By discovering the effects of different processing procedures, it will be possible to select the techniques that improve the nutritional quality of these foods.

    Understanding these effects for different foods can help consumers make conscious choices with respect to both preparation and consumption to preserve nutritional quality. In a food systems approach, brassicas are the perfect complement to pulse crops. Pulse crops fix their own nitrogen through a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria. This characteristic of legumes is what makes them advantageous as a cover crop or rotation crop. Because pulses return available nitrogen to the soil, they can improve the yield and nutritional quality of following or subsequent crops. Thus, subsistence farmers would benefit economically from growing pulses and brassica vegetables together through improved soil quality and perhaps even yield; their own diet would also benefit [ 28 ].

    Not only lentils, other cool season pulses including field pea and chickpea are also a good source of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates.

    Top 10 Healthiest Vegetables In The World

    For brassica vegetables, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprout, and collards are also good source of micronutrients. Therefore, balancing vegetarian diet with legumes and brassica vegetables can greatly improve the nutritional quality. In a world where so many people are struggling to eat, considering both quantity and quality of food is important. Typical diet in low income countries is mainly cereal based, however lentils are also the most affordable and culturally acceptable protein source for low income families in South Asia. Our field data from Nepal, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka show individual average daily lentil consumption ranges from 15 to 30 g personal communication with Dr.

    Thus, in countries where millions of people are suffering from hidden hunger, increasing the micronutrient content of staple foods could significantly address micronutrient malnutrition. Thus, we believe that lentils containing nutritionally significant amounts of bioavailable minerals and vitamins can make important contributions to public health, particularly in South Asia.

    Research plays a key role in the ability to increase the nutritional value and micronutrient content in foods, such as pulse and brassica crops, to benefit a range of consumers around the world. If introduced into agricultural systems where calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are a prevalent issue, these crops could help restore micronutrient levels and therefore improve health in those populations.

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    Promotion of these foods within populations that are struggling to improve their diets and regain good health could bring about significant results. A better understanding of these and many other food matrices will allow global populations to make healthier choices. Diet is becoming a key strategy to prevent disease and improve other health conditions. If it is known what food processing effects on nutritional compositions, what the most nutritional varieties are, and which forms of nutrients are the most bioavailable, we can choose to eat food in the way that will be most beneficial to our health.

    Dil Thavarajah. First author MM prepared the first draft of this manuscript under the supervision of second author DT. The third PT and fourth authors PS contributed equally by editing and reviewing. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Nutrients v. Published online Nov Find articles by Megan Migliozzi. Find articles by Dil Thavarajah.

    2. Red bell pepper

    Main St. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Aug 3; Accepted Nov 2. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Lentil Lens culinaris Medik.

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    Keywords: lentils, kale, biofortification, micronutrient malnutrition, obesity, prebiotic carbohydrates. Global Micronutrient Malnutrition Micronutrient malnutrition is a global issue. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Food Systems Approach In order to combat both obesity and micronutrient malnutrition, the concentration of food nutrients and their true bioavailability to humans must be highlighted. Nutrient Density, Bioavailability, and Prebiotic Carbohydrates Nutrient density and bioavailability of micronutrients are equally important for achieving optimal nutritional status of a diet.

    Lentils Today, approximately five million tons of lentil are produced around the world [ 13 ]. Figure 2. Leafy Green Brassica: Kale Brassica vegetables, such as kale and collard greens Brassica olceracea var. Future Implications Both lentils and kale have the potential to be extremely beneficial staple crops worldwide. Author Contributions First author MM prepared the first draft of this manuscript under the supervision of second author DT.

    Conflicts of Interest Authors have no conflict of interest. References 1. Food and Agriculture Organization World prevalence of undernourishment. Ogden C. Prevalence of obesity in the United States, — World Health Organization Obesity; situation and trends.