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Yasayko, J. Attacks on transit drivers as a function of ambient temperature. Burnaby, Canada: Simon Fraser University. Zaval, L. How will I be remembered? Psychological Science, 26 , — Courtney Plante is a postdoctoral fellow at Iowa State University. Plante studies climate-change effects on violence, media immersion, fantasy, and fan groups. He can be contacted at cplante iastate. His primary research examines short-term and long-term precursors to aggression and violence.
He can be contacted at caa iastate. A sample of research exploring GDP and science achievement, the effects of reward and punishment on information processing, emotion differentiation and regulation, and intrasexual aggression. New findings raise the possibility that men with a specific mix of biology and personality traits may be prone to aggressive driving as well as other fiery behavior. A sample of research exploring racial bias in perception of size and strength, pathways linking testosterone and aggression, and reactivation of previous experiences.
Immediate Effect of Heat Stress on Aggression and Violence When people get uncomfortably hot, their tempers, irritability, and likelihood of physical aggression and violence increase. Other behavioral responses that could be classified as aggressive are not generally measured.
For example, the negative emotion experienced during a loss in a college basketball game may be expressed through destruction of public or private property or even violence against people. Crowding in a supermarket may lead consumers to toss goods aside on the aisle or even shoplift as a means of punishing the retailer. Long waits and inattentive service in a restaurant may lead consumers to deface the public restrooms, steal property such as cups, glasses, or eating utensils, or simply leave without paying. Similarly, the angry consumer may be the littering consumer. Ineffective crowd control may also lead to conflicts among those waiting in line for service.
The possible aggressive responses to environments that are perceived to be aversive are quite varied and little studied, although these behaviors may be quite costly to both consumers and marketers. Because aspects of shopping environments may trigger the activation of aggressive behavioral scripts, it is important to consider the aggression cues that may be present when designing marketplaces.
Aspects of the environment such as lines may be strong cues for the retrieval of aggressive scripts. Solutions to waiting that avoid queuing may be preferred to the usual system of waiting lines. Examples include the use of vibration-pagers, intercom call systems, and number systems that allow consumers to leave the immediate service area.
Avoidance of crowds in lines may also minimize consumer-on-consumer aggression as well. Firms such as Disney are very interested in these issues for what should be obvious reasons given the usual crowds and waits at theme parks during peak season. Baker and Cameron have suggested that retailers should attend to store design factors that minimize the attribution of responsibility and control for service delays to the store and enhance the facilitating aspects of the presence of store employees and other customers. Various arguments have been advanced for this position including a distraction effect Maister and a social facilitation effect.
It should be noted that a social facilitation explanation requires that interacting with others be viewed as a positive by customers and that those in the crowd abide by norms of conduct in such situations regarding smoking, loud talking, swearing, cutting line, etc. If these normative expectations, or others such as acceptable social distance or standards of personal hygiene, are violated, negative affect may ensue, thereby increasing the likelihood of aggression.
One powerful cultural institution alleged to affect aggressive tendencies is the media in its various aspects. Considerable research effort has been invested in testing the relationship between media depictions of violence and the development of aggressive tendencies, especially among children, with mixed results Freedman Movies, television programs, and music videos may impact children through the learning of norms of conduct and aggressive scripts.
Adults may be influenced by the ability of media depictions of violence to cue retrieval of aggressive scripts, rehearse them, and therefore increase the likelihood of subsequent activation in interpersonal settings. Less studied, but very interesting, is the notion that commercial content on television also contributes to aggressive behavior.
They may also affect perceptions of the normalcy of aggressive conduct by their very pervasiveness. In sum, aggression is a largely unexplored topic in the consumer behavior and marketing literatures. The increased public concern with such behaviors, at least as reflected by media and political attention to sensational examples, suggests that the topic is timely. As Richins has noted, it is not clear how pervasive aggressive behavior is in typical exchange and consumption settings, nor has the relevant range of such settings been identified.
For these reasons, it is appropriate to begin with exploratory work designed to provide a typology of the marketplace contexts in which aggression is experienced by consumers or marketers. This work is currently under way using interview and open-ended questionnaire methods. Some preliminary findings from this qualitative work are presented next.
An initial qualitative study gathered information from 21 interviews. Three graduate students conducted these five to ten minute interviews and the entire interview was captured on audiocassette. The purpose of these interviews was to provide a list of aggressive incidents in the marketplace.
The State of Research on the Effects of Physical Punishment
First-hand information from consumers was used to identify specific antecedents, incidents, and consequences of aggressive exchanges. In addition to the interviews, 87 self-administered open-ended questionnaires were collected 18 of which are included in the analysis presented below. Of particular importance from the additional open-ended questionnaires were to responses the question concerning exaples of situations likely to lead to aggressive behavior in the marketplace. The complete list of situations likely to lead to aggressive behavior is detailed in Table 1.
The authors independently coded the transcriptions of the 21 in-depth interviews and 18 of the open-ended questionnaires. Rule, Taylor and Dobbs served as the coding framework for the aggressive episodes described by each informant. In order to adapt this coding scheme to match the incidents elicited from the marketplace rather than the previous psychological application, slight modifications were introduced to the coding scheme.
Specifically, the authors coded the context of each incident mentioned both the situation and the parties involved and the other antecedents i. These two categories were absent from the Rule et al. Additional detail was also added to the existing categories of frustrators and consequences. The frustrators category included aspects such as goal blocking e. Consequences included the categories of emotional states e.
The State of Research on the Effects of Physical Punishment - Ministry of Social Development
All disagreements were resolved by discussion. The descriptive nature of this exploratory study yielded simple frequencies of aggressive incidents, antecedents, and consequences see Table 2. Specifically the majority of the aggressive acts were between consumer-consumer or marketer-consumer in a service encounter or shopping environment. The context of this aggressive episode most often included the frustrators of a goal blockage or a violation of norms. The most frequently mentioned consequences were emotional states and verbal aggression. This finding is of particular significance as these consequences are either self-inflicted i.
Cognitive appraisals of these episodes would be an interesting topic to study in future research. Answers to the questions raised in this paper are important theoretically, but also are relevant to marketers and consumers. Similarly, consumers may avoid the deleterious consequences of aggressive behavior by recognizing the situations in which aggressive responses are likely to be exhibited by others and also by practicing cognitive control strategies that minimize their own aggressive behavior.
The initial results from the exploratory study reported here lay the foundation for future investigations of consumer aggressiveness. The specific antecedents, incidents, and consequences of aggressive episodes from this research will be used to build a more comprehensive empirical study.
Anderson, Craig A. Buss, Arnold H. Campos, J. Barrett, M. Lamb, H. Goldsmith, and C. Mussen, New York: Wiley, Caprara, G. Cinanni, G. Gentilomo, A. Mammucari, P. Renzi and G. Cialdini, Robert B. Kallgren, and Raymond R. Some people, however, do just the opposite. There are three hostile cognitive biases. The hostile attribution bias is the tendency to perceive ambiguous actions by others as hostile actions Dodge, For example, if a person bumps into you, a hostile attribution would be that the person did it on purpose and wants to hurt you. The hostile perception bias is the tendency to perceive social interactions in general as being aggressive Dill et al.
For example, if you see two people talking in an animated fashion, a hostile perception would be that they are fighting with each other. The hostile expectation bias is the tendency to expect others to react to potential conflicts with aggression Dill et al. For example, if you bump into another person, a hostile expectation would be that the person will assume that you did it on purpose and will attack you in return. People with hostile cognitive biases view the world as a hostile place.
One of the earliest theories of aggression proposed that aggression is caused by frustration, which was defined as blocking goal-directed behavior Dollard et al. For example, if you are standing in a long line to purchase a ticket, it is frustrating when someone crowds in front of you. This theory was later expanded to say that all unpleasant events, not just frustrations, cause aggression Berkowitz, Unpleasant events such as frustrations, provocations, social rejections, hot temperatures, loud noises, bad air e.
Unpleasant events automatically trigger a fight—flight response. Obviously, using a weapon can increase aggression and violence, but can just seeing a weapon increase aggression? The items on the table were supposedly part of a different study, but the researcher had forgotten to put them away. The participant was supposed to decide what level of electric shock to deliver to a person pretending to be another participant, and the electric shocks were used to measure aggression.
The experimenter told participants to ignore the items on the table, but apparently they could not. Participants who saw the guns gave more shocks than did participants who saw the sports items. When you think about it, you would have to be pretty stupid to honk your horn at a driver with a rifle in his truck. However, drivers were probably responding in an automatic rather than a deliberate manner. There are plenty of aggressive cues in the mass media, such as in TV programs, films, and video games.
In the U. Most Americans know that the U. There comes a time when the data are sufficient to justify action. Since then, hundreds of additional studies have shown that all forms of violent media can increase aggression e. Violent video games might even be more harmful than violent TV programs, for at least three reasons. First, playing a video game is active, whereas watching a TV program is passive. Active involvement enhances learning.
Second, video game players are more likely to identify with a violent character than TV watchers. If the game involves a first-person shooter, players have the same visual perspective as the killer. In either case, the player is linked to a violent character. Research has shown that people are more aggressive when they identify with a violent character e.
Third, violent games directly reward players for violent behavior by awarding points or by allowing them to advance in the game. It is well known that rewarding behavior increases its frequency. The evidence linking violent video games to aggression is compelling. A comprehensive review found that violent games increase aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, and aggressive behaviors and decrease empathic feelings and prosocial behaviors Anderson et al.
Similar effects were obtained for males and females, regardless of their age, and regardless of what country they were from. Alcohol has long been associated with aggression and violence. In fact, sometimes alcohol is deliberately used to promote aggression. It has been standard practice for many centuries to issue soldiers some alcohol before they went into battle, both to increase aggression and reduce fear Keegan, There is ample evidence of a link between alcohol and aggression, including evidence from experimental studies showing that consuming alcohol can cause an increase in aggression e.
Most theories of intoxicated aggression fall into one of two categories: a pharmacological theories that focus on how alcohol disrupts cognitive processes, and b expectancy theories that focus on how social attitudes about alcohol facilitate aggression. Normally, people have strong inhibitions against behaving aggressively, and pharmacological models focus on how alcohol reduces these inhibitions. To use a car analogy, alcohol increases aggression by cutting the brake line rather than by stepping on the gas. How does alcohol cut the brake line? Alcohol disrupts cognitive executive functions that help us organize, plan, achieve goals, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors Giancola, In some places where alcohol is consumed e.
Alcohol also reduces self-awareness, which decreases attention to internal standards against behaving aggressively Hull, According to expectancy theories, alcohol increases aggression because people expect it to. In our brains, alcohol and aggression are strongly linked together.
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Indeed, research shows that subliminally exposing people to alcohol-related words e. Does this research evidence mean that aggression is somehow contained in alcohol? Alcohol increases rather than causes aggressive tendencies. Factors that normally increase aggression e. In other words, alcohol mainly seems to increase aggression in combination with other factors.