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For regional delivery times, please check When will I receive my book? Sorry, this product is currently out of stock. Institutional Subscription. Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Selected contents Phase transformations and structural modifications induced by heating in microporous materials A. Fejes et al. Templated and non-templated routes to mesoporous TiO2 U. Lafont et al. The role of surfaces in hydrogen storage G. Spoto et al. Brings together experimental and theoretical information Provides information on new oxide-based materials with applications in catalysis, pollution control and nanoengineering Contributions from experts in the field.
Chemical engineers, physical chemists, and catalysis scientists. Powered by. You are connected as. Connect with:. Use your name:. Thank you for posting a review! The study also revealed a variety of shapes such as decahedral, hexagonal, isosahedral, irregular, and rod-shaped could be produced depending on reaction medium pH [ ]. Also, in a recent study by Poinern et al. Eucalyptus macrocarpa leaf extract could be utilised to synthesize Au nanoparticles. The results of this study revealed that spherical particles ranging in size from 20 to 80 nm were the main product. However, coexisting with the spheres were a variety of shapes such as hexagonal pentagon and truncated triangles all ranging in size from 50 to nm as seen in Figure 2 [ 84 ].
Au nanoparticles synthesised using Eucalyptus macrocarpa leaf extract. Historically, Ag is well known for its antimicrobial activity and as a result it is commonly used in a variety of medical preparations against pathogens [ , , ]. For antimicrobial preparations, the size and high surface area to volume ratio of Ag nanoparticles enables them to closely interact with the bacterial cell membranes [ ]. Recent antimicrobial studies have revealed that significant membrane damage and DNA toxicity can result from the interaction between Ag nanoparticles via bio-sorption and cellular uptake [ 31 , ].
Among biological synthesis processes, plants are found to be more conducive and provide a faster pathway for manufacturing Ag nanoparticles compared to conventional microbial processes. For example, Edison and Sethuraman have used Terminalia chebula harad fruit extract to rapidly produce Ag nanoparticles [ ]. Likewise, Poinern et al. Studies by Geetha et al. The Ag nanoparticles ranged in size from 15 to 65 nm with an average size of 34 nm.
The shape of the particles was predominately cuboidal and rectangular. The antibacterial effect was found to be effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Proteus mirabilis , Escherichia coli , Shigella flexaneri , Shigella sonnei, and Klebsiella pneumonia [ , ]. Ag nanoparticles synthesised using Eucalyptus macrocarpa leaf extract.
In addition to pure metal nanoparticles being synthesized by plants, several authors have also reported alloying Au and Ag to investigate the properties of the resulting bimetallic nanoparticle. Bimetallic nanoparticle synthesis involves the competitive reduction between two aqueous solutions each containing a different metallic ion precursor that is mixed with a plant extract.
In the case of an Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticle, Au having the larger reduction potential will form first to create the core of a resulting core-shell structure. Subsequent reduction of Ag ions results in Ag coalescing on the core to form the shell. Plants that have been successfully used to synthesize Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles include Azadirachta indica neem [ 79 ], Anacardium occidentale cashew nut [ ], Swietenia mahagony West Indies mahogany [ ], and cruciferous vegetable extracts [ ].
Copper Cu and copper oxide CuO nanoparticles have been synthesized by a variety of plant extracts. Cu nanoparticles have been biologically synthesized using magnolia leaf extract to produce stable nanoparticles ranging in size from 40 to nm. Antimicrobial studies revealed that the Cu nanoparticles have potential antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli cells, a common pathogen [ 30 ]. Syzygium aromaticum Clove extracts can produce Cu nanoparticles with a mean particle size of 40 nm and a spherical to granular morphology [ ].
Cu nanoparticles can be synthesised using stem latex of Euphorbia nivulia Common milk hedge. These nanoparticles are coated and stabilized by peptides and terpenoids present in the latex; these nanoparticles are reported to be toxic to human adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelial cells A cells [ , ].
Furthermore, a study by Padil et al. The particles were found to have significant antimicrobial activity against common pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus [ ]. Similar studies have also shown that CuO nanoparticles exhibit both antioxidant and antibacterial behaviour [ , ]. Palladium nanoparticles were synthesised by Satishkumar et al.
Changing the bark extract concentration, reaction pH and temperature during synthesis was found not to influence particle size 15 to 20 nm and morphology. Palladium nanoparticles ranging in size from 75 to 85 nm have also been synthesized using Annona squamosa Custard apple peel extract [ ], while the leaf extract of soybean Glycine max have been able to synthesise nanoparticles with a mean size of 15 nm [ ]. And even common commercial products like Coffea arabica Coffee and Camellia sinensis Tea extracts have been utilised to synthesise palladium nanoparticles varying in size from 20 to 60 nm with faced centred cubic crystal symmetry [ ].
Moreover, when an extract taken from Gardenia jasminoides Cape jasmine was used to synthesise palladium nanoparticles, antioxidants such as geniposide, chlorogenic acid, crocins, and crocetin were found to act as both reducing and stabilizing agents [ ]. Subsequent analysis revealed particle sizes ranged from 3 to 5 nm and the study also found particle size was dependent on reaction temperature.
The first synthesis of platinium nanoparticles was reported by Song et al. And recently, the biological synthesis of platinum nanoparticles with particle size and shape control has also been reported by using plant wood nanometre scale materials [ ]. For example, Coccia et al. A number of plant extracts have been also been found to synthesize important metal oxide nanomaterials such as titanium dioxide TiO 2 and zinc oxide ZnO nanoparticles. For example, Roopan et al.
Velayutham et al. The resultant nanoparticles were irregular in shape and ranged in size from 25 up to nm. Assessment of the resulting TiO 2 suspensions revealed that they were both adulticidal and larvicidal against Hippobosca maculate hematophagous fly and Bovicola ovis sheep louse [ ]. The antibacterial and antioxidant properties of TiO 2 nanoparticles synthesized via an extract from Psidium guajava were evaluated against Aeromonas hydrophila , Proteus mirabilis , Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogens [ ].
The nanoparticles were found to be most effective against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the antibacterial and antioxidant properties of nanometre scale and bulk TiO 2 towards bacteria have also been examined and found to be deleterious towards a number of bacterial strains [ ]. Zinc oxide nanoformulations is an important biomedical and cosmetic product. The latex from Calotropis procera has been used as both reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of spherical shaped zinc oxide ZnO nanoparticles [ ]. While stable and spherical ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized using Aloe vera extract [ ].
In addition, crystalline poly-dispersed ZnO nanoparticles with a mean particle size of A recent study by Vimala et al. A number of other types of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles have been biologically synthesized using a variety of plants. Leaf extracts from Aloe vera Aloe barbadensis Miller have been used to synthesize Indium oxide In 2 O 3 nanoparticles. The resultant spherical nanoparticle size was dependent on treatment temperature and ranged from 5 to 50 nm [ ].
Because of the importance of Iron Fe nanoparticles in a number of environmental remediation technologies, recent research has focused on green chemistry based methods to synthesize these Fe nanoparticles. For example, aqueous sorghum bran extracts have been used to biologically synthesize Fe nanoparticles at room temperature [ 29 ].
Recently Pattanayak et al. And a short time ago Shah et al. The smallest spherical nanoparticles size range 13 to 21 nm were synthesized from the stem extract taken from Euphorbia milii and the widest size range 43— nm occurred for particles synthesized using leaf extracts taken from Cymbopogon citratus [ ]. Other significant metallic nanoparticles that have been biologically synthesized include lead Pb and selenium Se.
In the case of Pb nanoparticles, Joglekar et al. Recently, Sasidharan et al. The continually developing field of nanotechnology is expected to require a significant amount of optimised and functional nanomaterials. A wide range of conventional physicochemical processes has been used in the recent past to synthesise a wide variety of metal nanoparticles. These nanoparticles have been used in a diverse range of applications such as biosensors [ ], targeted drug delivery platforms [ 10 , 14 , ], diagnostics and therapeutics [ ], cancer treatments [ 9 , ], pesticides [ ], and antimicrobials [ ].
However, nanoparticles produced by environment-friendly biological entities have only been exploited in relatively few practical applications. Ag nanoparticles have attracted considerable research interest due to its inherent antimicrobial activity and as a result it is already used as an antimicrobial agent in a wide range of commercially available medical and consumer products [ 18 , 20 , ]. Another emerging application of nanoparticles and Ag nanoparticles in particular is in crop protection and the management of agricultural plant diseases [ , ].
Recent studies by Vivek et al. Futhermore, Ag nanoparticles can be used to control a number of plant pathogens in a safer way compared to conventional fungicides [ ] and these metallic Ag nanoparticles have also been found to be active against cancer cells and plasmodial pathogens [ , , , ]. Traditionally, Au has been used in several medical applications. Au nanoparticles have attracted significant interest over the last decade as a medicinal material in treatment of tumours.
For example, Au nanoparticles have the ability to passively accumulate in tumours due to their size and because of their unique optical and chemical properties can be used in thermal treatment procedures [ , ]. Moreover, studies have shown that biocompatible Au nanoparticles can be successfully used as carrier platforms for the targeted delivery of anticancer drugs thus improving delivery and minimizing treatment durations and side effects [ 13 , , ].
Studies have also shown that Au nanoparticles are effective antibacterial agents against a number of bacterial strains [ 84 , ]. While Cu and CuO nanoparticles have also been found to be strong antimicrobial agents and their disinfecting properties against a number of infectious organisms means they can be used as an effective bactericide material to coat hospital equipment [ , , , ].
Pt nanoparticles have the potential to be used in water electrolysis applications [ ]. TiO 2 nanoparticles, because of their antibacterial activity, have been used in antibacterial coatings and wastewater disinfection processes [ , , ]. While ZnO nanoparticles display good antibacterial activity and have been used in food packaging and wastewater treatments [ , ]. Moreover, template assisted fabrication using biological entities permits the creation of more complex self-assembled structures at both the nanometre and micrometre scales.
Bacteria, bacteriophages and viruses are attractive assemblers for manufacturing one dimensional structures into ordered arrays. For example, the tobacco mosaic virus has been used to assemble Au, Ag and Pt nanoparticles [ ] and filamentous bacteriophages have been used to form silica fibres and nanotubes [ , , , ]. These nanometre scale entities are very effective templates for forming well-ordered 1D assemblies [ , ].
While entities such as silk sericin have been used to form nano-fibrous networks that direct the formation of needle like hydroxyapatite particles [ ] and promote osteogenic properties of human bone marrow cells [ ]. While magnetically controlled guidance of biomolecules via iron oxide nanoparticles has been able to produce high ordered 3D arrays used to support stem cell growth [ ].
Furthermore, films incorporating Au nanoparticles have been assembled from genetically engineered bacteria and filamentous viruses to produce CdS quantum dots [ ] and colourimetric sensors [ , ]. Recent studies by Wang et al. Nanoparticles and nanoparticle constructed structures have the potential to be used in a wide variety of applications as discussed above, especially if they can be synthesised using biological entities that can ensure clean, nontoxic, and eco-friendly methods of production.
The synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using a wide variety of biological entities, as discussed above, has been actively pursued in recent years as an alternative bottom up approach to self-assemble atoms to form nuclei and subsequently grow into nanometre scale particles. However, several factors have been identified that can significantly influence the viability of this eco-friendly process for synthesising nanoparticles. The most readily identified factors being particle size control, shape, and size distribution.
These factors are all directly influenced by reaction medium pH, reactant moieties, reactant concentrations, reaction time, and temperature. As explained above, even small variations in these factors can significantly influence particle size, shape, and size distribution. For example, in the case of plant extracts, there can be noticeable variations in the chemical composition of extracts taken at different times of the year and at different locations around the world for the same species.
This compositional variation can often lead to different laboratories producing dissimilar results from the same plant extract and metal salt. This can be a serious drawback in using plant extracts to produce nanoparticles with consistent physical and chemical properties. Understandably, even with the current limitations, biosynthesis offers numerous advantages and has the potential to deliver nanoparticles with predetermined properties. For example, Shankar et al. The triangles displayed truncated vertices similar to those seen for triangular Ag [ ] and Au nanoprisms [ ] synthesised by chemical and photochemical methods.
Interestingly, despite recent developments in conventional physical and chemical methods, many physical methods still require relatively expensive equipment and have operational requirements such as vacuum, pressurized gases, and high temperatures. While most chemical methods tend to use toxic materials such as organic solvents, reducing agents, and stabilizers.
These economic and toxicity related emphasizes the importance and need for further research into eco-friendly biosynthesis methods factors further over the more traditional nanoparticle production processes. Nanoparticles, in particular metallic nanoparticles have attracted considerable interest in many and diverse fields such as electronics, photonics, medicine, and agriculture. This review has summarized recent research into the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using biological entities. However, owing to the diversity of biological entities ranging from microorganisms to plants, much of this field remains largely unknown and still remains to be discovered.
The production of nanoparticles using biological entities has the potential to deliver new sources of novel materials that are stable, nontoxic, cost effective, environment-friendly, and synthesized using green chemistry approach. This green chemistry approach of using biological entities is in complete contrast with conventional chemical and physical processes that often use toxic materials that have the potential to cause environmental toxicity, cytotoxicity, and carcinogenicity.
Whilst biological entities have been extensively used to produce nanoparticles, the use of plants offers a straightforward, clean, non-toxic, and robust procedure that does not need any special culture preparation or isolation techniques that are normally required for bacteria and fungi based techniques.
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In particular, the use of plant extracts for synthesizing nanoparticles is inexpensive, easily scaled up, and environment-friendly. Plant extracts have the potential to produce nanoparticles with a specific size, shape and composition. Plant synthesized nanoparticles have the potential to be widely used in current medical procedures involving nanoparticles such as fluorescent labelling in immunoassays, targeted delivery of therapeutic drugs, tumour destruction via heating hyperthermia , and as antibacterial agents in bandages.
On another front, plant synthesized nanoparticles have the potential to be used for the delivery of anti-microbiological compounds for use as pesticides for agricultural crops. Moreover, agricultural crop wastes and food industry wastes are also excellent candidates for supplying sources of plant-based bio-chemicals with the potential to synthesize metallic nanoparticles and similar products.
Despite the environmental advantages of using green chemistry based biological synthesis over traditional methods as discussed in this article there are some unresolved issues such as particle size and shape consistency, reproducibility of the synthesis process, and understanding of the mechanisms involved in producing metallic nanoparticles via biological entities. In the case of plant extracts, nanoparticle formation mechanisms vary between different plant species. Therefore, there is a need for more studies to evaluate and understand the actual plant dependent mechanisms.
This is a grossly unexplored field and requires much more research investment to fully utilize the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles via biological entities. This work was partly supported by Horticulture Innovation Australia Project Al and Derek Fawcett would like to thank Horticulture Innovation Australia for their research fellowship.
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Materials Basel. Published online Oct Find articles by Monaliben Shah. Find articles by Derek Fawcett. S Find articles by Shashi Sharma. Mady Elbahri, Academic Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Aug 4; Accepted Oct This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Nanotechnology is the creation, manipulation and use of materials at the nanometre size scale 1 to nm. Keywords: green chemistry, biological synthesis, nanoparticles. Introduction In recent years, the convergence of nanometre size scale technologies and biological technologies has created the new field of nanobiotechnology. Characterisation Techniques To date, there are numerous techniques for synthesizing nanoparticles. Biological Synthesis of Nanoparticles Recent studies have shown that green biologically based methods using microorganisms and plants to synthesize nanoparticles are safe, inexpensive, and an environment-friendly alternative [ 99 , ].
Table 1 A selection of microorganisms used to synthesize nanoparticles. Au 5 to 15, Spherical I [ 93 ] Thermomonospora sp. PbS 2 to 5, Spherical I [ ]. Open in a separate window. Microbial Routes for Nanoparticle Synthesis Many studies have shown that microorganisms, both unicellular and multicellular have the ability to synthesize inorganic materials. Actinomycetes The literature reports extensively on the extracellular or intracellular synthesis of metallic nanoparticles via actinomycetes [ , , ], with extracellular synthesis being the more common pathway.
Algae Algae are aquatic microorganisms and recent studies have shown that some of them not only accumulate heavy metals, but they can also be used to biologically synthesize metallic nanoparticles. Bacteria In nature, bacteria are frequently exposed to diverse and sometimes extreme environmental situations. Fungi Biosynthesis of nanoparticles utilising fungi is widespread among many research groups globally and the synthesis occurs at both extracellular and intracellular locations.
Viruses The use of viruses in the synthesis of nanomaterials is a novel technique that has been able to deliver inorganic materials such as silicon dioxide SiO 2 , cadmium sulphide CdS , iron oxide Fe 2 O 3 , and zinc sulphide ZnS. Yeasts Yeasts, like many other microorganisms, have the ability to absorb and accumulate significant amounts of toxic metals from their surrounding environment [ , ]. Biological Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles via Plants It has long been known that plants have the potential to hyper-accumulate and biologically reduce metallic ions [ 44 , 69 ].
Figure 1. Table 2 A selection of nanoparticles synthesized by various plants. Pear fruit extract Au to Triangular, hexagonal [ ] Terminalia catappa Au 10 to 35 Spherical [ ]. Factors Affecting Biological Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles During biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles, a number of controlling factors are involved in the nucleation and subsequent formation of stablised nanoparticles.
Influence of pH The pH value of the reaction medium plays a significant role during the formation of nanoparticles [ ]. Influence of Reactant Concentration The concentration of biomolecules found in plants extracts can significantly influence the formation of metallic nanoparticles. Influence of Reaction Time A recent study by Ahmad et al.
Influence of Reaction Temperature While it is generally known that reaction temperature is a crucial factor in any synthesis it has been found that temperature is also an important factor in determining the size, shape, and yield of nanoparticles synthesized via plant extracts [ , ].
Major Nanoparticles Synthesized by Plant Extracts 5. Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Au nanoparticles have attracted significant interest due to their size, shape, and surface properties [ 13 , ]. Figure 2. Figure 3. Copper and Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Copper Cu and copper oxide CuO nanoparticles have been synthesized by a variety of plant extracts.
Palladium and Platinium Nanoparticles Palladium nanoparticles were synthesised by Satishkumar et al. Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles A number of plant extracts have been also been found to synthesize important metal oxide nanomaterials such as titanium dioxide TiO 2 and zinc oxide ZnO nanoparticles.
Indium Oxide, Iron Oxide, Lead, and Selenium Nanoparticles A number of other types of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles have been biologically synthesized using a variety of plants. Conclusions Nanoparticles, in particular metallic nanoparticles have attracted considerable interest in many and diverse fields such as electronics, photonics, medicine, and agriculture. Acknowledgments This work was partly supported by Horticulture Innovation Australia Project Al and Derek Fawcett would like to thank Horticulture Innovation Australia for their research fellowship.
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