Today, smart elevators able to tell passengers which lift offers the shortest route to their destination, are in common use. None though, has so far been found sulking in a basement.
The answer is 42
In it, Tom Baker plays the personification of a software programme inside a TV set. That was four years before the first Smart TV patent was posted, and decades before internet-connected televisions became widespread. It delivers the answer — 42 — but is unable to provide the question. For that, Deep Thought after which the first computer to beat a grandmaster in a chess tournament was named designs a computer infinitely more powerful than itself — The Earth.
Self-replicating artificial intelligence is a sci-fi mainstay, and no longer just fiction. Researchers at the Google Brain AI group are currently developing learning software able to design other learning software. Before launching his Tesla Roadster into space, Elon Musk joked or was he serious? Smart towels are now a reality.
And New Scientist has predicted that spray-on solar cells could create beach towels that charge mobile phones while we sunbathe. He's the last living human, but in many ways he so much less.
There are infrastructure scaling costs to consider as well.
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How reliable is it? MQTT is used as a data format to communicate to something, and that payload can be sent over any transport, be it Wi-Fi, mesh, or some socket protocol. What it tries to solve is to define a way to manipulate attributes of some thing.
Zooming in on Specific Standards
It centers around reading and writing properties, which lends itself very well to an IoT problem. As soon as you one-off any part of it, you have to document it really well, and at some point, you approach a time and cost factor where implementing your own payload scheme may be a better option.
- The Canterbury Puzzles and Other Curious Problems.
- About the Wireless Hosted Network - Windows applications | Microsoft Docs;
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- IR and Raman Spectroscopy: Fundamental Processing (Spectroscopic Techniques: An Interactive Course).
- 42 (h2g2, meaning of life, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy).
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- Hitchhiker's Guide to IoT Standards and Protocols.
They attempt to solve two problems: provide a reasonable specification to move packets from one place to another on a mesh network, and actually suggest how those packets should be structured; so, they both reach up higher in the stack. And that's the part that hinders their futures. The other consideration with these two is that they are both routed mesh networks. We use one node to communicate with another node using intervening nodes. As routed meshes, each node understands the path the message needs to take, and that has an in-memory cost associated with it.
While Z-wave and Zigbee have a theoretical limit of 65, nodes on a network the address space is a bit integer , the practical limit is closer to few hundred nodes, because these devices are usually low power, low memory devices. The routing also has a time cost, so a large mesh network may manifest unacceptable latency for your use case.
A final caveat is that Z-wave is a single source supplier — the radios are made and sold by Zensys, so you have to buy it from them. Zigbee has a certification process, and there are multiple suppliers of the radio, from Atmel to TI. BLE did a ton to optimize around IoT challenges. They looked heavily at the amount of energy required to support communication. They considered every facet of "low energy," not just the radio — they looked at data format, packet size, how long the radio needed to be on to transmit those packets, how much memory was required to support it, what the power cost was for that memory, and what the protocol expects of the CPU, all while keeping overall BOM costs in mind.
Innovation: How cellphones will enhance reality | New Scientist
For example, they figured out that the radio should only be on for 1. They also figured out that button cell batteries are better at delivering power in short bursts as opposed to continuously. Further, they optimized it to be really durable against Wi-Fi interference because the protocols share the same radio space 2. Take all the advantages afforded with BLE, and then get all the benefits of a mesh network.
The Bluetooth Mesh is flood mesh, meaning instead of specific routing to nodes, a message is sent indiscriminately across all nodes. This scales better than routed mesh because there are no memory constraints. Thread is an up-and-coming standard built on top of the same silicon that powers the Zigbee radio.
As it stands, it takes a long time for a standard to really take hold — you can immediately see how the story with Thread is a little muddier, which will not help its adoption. Do these low power, lightweight, low cost, low memory, low processing, fairly dumb devices NEED to make internet requests directly? When it comes to the actual sensors and other endpoints, philosophically you want minimize those responsibilities, except in special cases where offline durability, local processing, and decision making is required this is called fog computing. When Thread announced their product certification last year, only 30 products submitted.
One thing Thread does have going for it is that it steps out of defining how devices talk to each other, and how devices format their data—doing this makes it more future proof.